AIOU 8602 Assignment 01 |Research Methods in Education

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Code: 8602
Assignment No: 01

In general, the term measurement is used to determine the attributes or dimensions of object. For example, we measure an object to know how big, tall or heavy it is. In educational perspective measurement refers to the process of obtaining a numerical description of a student’s progress towards a pre-determined goal. This process provides the information regarding how much a student has learnt. Measurement provides quantitative description of the students’ performance for example Rafaih solved 23 arithmetic problems out of 40. But it does not include the qualitative aspect for example, Rafaih’s work was neat.

A test is an instrument or a systematic procedure to measure a particular characteristic. For example, a test of mathematics will measure the level of the learners’ knowledge of this particular subject or field.

Kizlik defines assessment as a process by which information is obtained relative to some known objective or goal. Assessment is a broad term that includes testing.
Classroom assessment: The process of gathering, recording, interpreting, using and communicating information about a child’s progress and achievement during the development of knowledge, concepts, skills and attitudes.

Evaluation: evaluation as a continuous inspection of all available information in order to form a valid judgment of students’ learning and/or the effectiveness of education program. Evaluation is much more comprehensive term than measurement and assessment. It includes both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of students’ performance. It always provides a value judgment regarding the desirability of the performance for example, Very good, good etc.

Types of Assessment: “As coach and facilitator, the teacher uses formative assessment to help support and enhance student learning, As judge and jury, the teacher makes summative judgments about a student’s achievement…”
1. assessment for Learning (Formative Assessment): Observations, Questioning strategies, Self and peer assessment, Student record keeping. 2.Assessment of Learning (Summative Assessment):
3.Assessment as Learning:
Characteristics of Classroom Assessment: Effective assessment of student learning begins with educational goals, Assessment is most effective when it reflects an understanding of learning as multidimensional, integrated, and revealed in performance over time, Assessment works best when it has a clear, explicitly stated purposes, Assessment requires attention to outcomes but also and equally to the experiences that lead to those outcomes, Assessment works best when it is ongoing not episodic, Assessment is effective when representatives from across the educational community are involved, Assessment makes a difference when it begins with issues of use and illuminates questions that people really care about, Through effective assessment, educators meet responsibilities to students and to the public.

Role of Assessment: 1. Capturing student time and attention 2. Generating appropriate student learning activity, 3. Providing timely feedback which students pay attention to 4. Helping students to internalize the discipline’s standards and notions of equality It fulfills student expectations It is used to motivate students It provide opportunities to remedy mistakes It indicate readiness for progression Assessment serves as a diagnostic tool Assessment enables grading and degree classification Assessment works as a performance indicator for students It is used as a performance indicator for teacher Assessment is also a performance indicator for institution Assessment facilitates learning in the one way or the other.

Principles of Classroom Assessment: Assessment should be formative, Should determine planning, Assessment should serve teaching, Assessment should serve learning, Assessment should be curriculum-driven, Assessment should be interactive, Assessment should be student-centered, Assessment should be diagnostic, Assessment should be exposed to learners, Assessment should be non-judgmental, Assessment should develop a mutual understanding, Assessment should lead to learner’s autonomy, Assessment should involve reflective teaching.

What is a Test? Test is a device which is used to measure behavior of a person for a specific purpose. Moreover it is an instrument that typically uses sets of items designed to measure a domain of learning tasks. Tests are systematic method of collecting information that lead to make inferences about the characteristics of people or objects. Objective type test: Objective type tests are also called selective-response tests. (i) Multiple choice (ii) Multiple Binary-choice (iii) Matching items

Purposes of test: Monitoring Student Progress, Diagnosing Learning Problems, Assigning Grades Classification and Selection of Students, Evaluating Instruction.
Learning Objective: A learning objective refers to the statement of what students will obtain through instruction of certain content. In other words ‘an objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent. An objective describes an intended result of instruction, rather than the process of instruction itself.
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Cognitive domain, Affective domain, Psychomotor domain
Bloom’s Hierarchical Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Level of cognitive domain): Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation.

Definitions of Learning Outcomes: A learning outcome is a written statement of what the successful student/learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the module/course unit, or qualification. An expression of what a student will demonstrate on the successful completion of a module. Learning outcomes.
Difference between Learning Outcomes and Objectives: n simple words, objectives are concerned with teaching and the teacher’s intentions whereas learning outcomes are concerned with students learning. However, objectives and learning outcomes are usually written in same terms. For further detail check the following website.

Importance of Learning Outcomes: Help students to learn more effectively, make it clear what students can hope to gain from a particular course or lecture. Help instructors select the appropriate teaching strategy, for example lecture, seminar, student self-paced, or laboratory class. assist in setting examinations based on the content delivered. Help in the selection of appropriate assessment strategies.
SOLO Taxonomy: Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes Stages: Pre-structural, Unistructural Multistructural, Relational, extended abstract.
Achievement Tests: Assess level of competence Diagnose strength and weaknesses Assign Grades Achieve Certification or Promotion Advanced Placement/College Credit Exams Curriculum Evaluation Accountability Informational Purposes

Types of Achievement Tests: Summative
Evaluation, Formative Evaluation
Aptitude Tests: Aptitude tests determine a person’s ability to learn a given set of information. They do not test a person’s knowledge of existing information. The best way to prepare for aptitude. tests is to take practice tests.
Types of Aptitude Test: Critical Thinking, Numerical Reasoning Tests, Spatial Visualization Tests, Logical Reasoning Tests, Verbal Reasoning Tests, Perceptual Speed Tests, Value of Aptitude Tests.
Intelligence Tests: Intelligence involves the ability to think, solve problems, analyze situations, and understand social values, customs, and norms. Intelligence test is often defined as a measure of general mental ability.

Types of Intelligence Tests: Group Intelligence tests, Individual intelligence tests, Computerized tests, Verbal tests, Non-verbal tests Personality Tests: A personality test is completed to yield a description of an individual’s distinct personality traits. Increasing productivity Get along better with classmates Help students realize their full potential Identify teaching strategies for students Help students appreciate other personality types.
Types of Personality Tests: Self-report Inventory, Likert Scale, Projective tests

Norm-referenced Tests and Criterion-Referenced Tests: Norm-referenced tests are made with compare test takers to each other. Criterion-referenced tests are intended to measure how well a person has learned a specific body of knowledge and skills. Criterion-referenced test is a term which is used daily in classes. These tests assess specific skills covered in class. Criterion-referenced tests measure specific skills and concepts. Typically, they are designed with 100 total points possible. Students are earned points for items completed correctly.

Questionnaire: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents.
Different Types of Questions in Questionnaire Design: Open Format Questions, Closed Format Questions, Leading Questions, Importance Questions, Likert Questions, Dichotomous Questions, Bipolar Questions.
Observation: Observation can be defined as the visual study of something or someone in order to gain information or learn about behaviour, trends, or changes. This then allows us to make informed decisions, adjustments, and allowances based on what has been studied.
Interview: A conversation in which one person (the interviewer) elicits information from another person (the subject or interviewee). A transcript or account of such a conversation is also called an interview.

Types of Interview: Structured Interview, Unstructured Interview, Group Interview, Exit Interview, Depth Interview, Stress Interview, Individual Interview, Informal Interview, Formal Interview, Panel Interview, Behavioral Interview, Phone Interview.
Rating Scale: A rating scale is a tool used for assessing the performance of tasks, skill levels, procedures, processes, qualities, quantities, or end products, such as reports, drawings, and computer programs.
Types of Rating Scales: Numerical Rating Scales, Graphic Rating Scales

Types of Test:
Selection Type Items (objective type)
1. Multiple Choice Questions: Multiple-choice test items consist of a stem or a question and three or more alternative answers (options) with the correct answer sometimes called the keyed response and the incorrect answers called distracted.
Structure of MCQ: 1. The question (“body of the question”) 2. The correct answer (“the key of the question”) 3. Several incorrect alternatives (the so called “distracters”) and optional (and especially valuable in self-assessment) 4. Feedback comment on the student’s answer.
Multiple Choice Questions Good for: Examine only the Important Facts!, Use Simple Language!, Make the Questions Brief and Clear!, Form the Questions Correctly!, Take into Consideration the Independence of Questions!, Offer Uniform Answers!, Avoid Asking Negative Questions!, Distracters must be Significantly Different from the Right Answer (key)!, Offer an Appropriate Numbers of Distracters.

Advantages of MCQ:
Versatility, Validity, Reliability, Efficiency.
RULES FOR WRITING MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS: Use Plausible Distracters (wrong-response options), Use a Question Format, Emphasize Higher-Level Thinking, Keep Option Lengths Similar, Balance the Placement of the Correct Answer, Be Grammatically Correct, Avoid Clues to the Correct Answer, Avoid Negative Questions, Give Clear Instructions, Avoid “All the Above” Option, Avoid the “None of the Above” Option
2. True/False Questions: A True-False test item requires the student to determine whether a statement is true or false. The chief disadvantage of this type is the opportunity for successful guessing.
Advantages: Easily assess verbal knowledge Each item contains only two possible answers Easy to construct for the teacher Easy to score for the examiner Helpful for poor students Can test large amounts of content Students can answer 3-4 questions per minute

3. Matching items: the matching items consist of two parallel columns. The column on the left contains the questions to be answered, termed premises; the column on the right, the answers, termed responses. The student is asked to associate each premise with a response to form a matching pair.
Types: Terms with definitions Phrases with other phrases Causes with effects Parts with larger units Problems with solutions.
4. Completion Items: ike items of all other formats, though, there are good and poor completion items. Student fills in one or more blanks in a statement. These are also known as “Gap-Fillers.” Most effective for assessing knowledge and comprehension learning outcomes but can be written for higher level outcomes. e.g
Supply Type Items: he aviation instructor is able to determine the students’ level of generalized knowledge of a subject through the use of supply-type questions.

1.Short Answer: Student supplies a response to a question that might consistent of a single word or phrase. Most effective for assessing knowledge and comprehension learning outcomes but can be written for higher level outcomes. Short answer items are of two types. Simple direct questions Who was the first president of the Pakistan? Completion items 2.Essay: Restricted Response Essay Items, non Restricted Response Essay Items,
Reliability: Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or measuring procedure yields the same results on repeated trials.” Reliability is the consistency of observations yielded over repeated recordings either for one subject or a set of subjects.
Types of Reliability: Inter-Rater or Inter-Observer Reliability, Test-Retest Reliability, Parallel-Form Reliability, Internal Consistency Reliability, Split half Reliability, Kuder-Richardson Reliability.

Factors Affecting Reliability: Test Length, Method Used to Estimate Reliability, Heterogeneity of Scores, Difficulty, Errors that Can Increase or Decrease Individual Scores.
Usability of Assessment Tools:
Transparency, Security
Nature of Validity: According to Business Dictionary the “Validity is the degree to which an instrument, selection process, statistical technique, or test measures what it is supposed to measure.” Cook and Campbell (1979) define validity as the appropriateness or correctness of inferences, decisions, or descriptions made about individuals, groups, or institutions from test results.

Validity versus Reliability: A test can be reliable but may not be valid. If test scores are to be used to make accurate inferences about an examinee’s ability, they must be both reliable and valid. Reliability is a prerequisite for validity and refers to the ability of a test to measure a particular trait or skill consistently. In simple words we can say that same test administered to same students may yield same score. However, tests can be highly reliable and still not be valid for a particular purpose. Consider the example of a thermometer if there is a systematic error and it measures five degrees higher. When the repeated readings has been taken under the same conditions the thermometer will yield consistent (reliable) measurements, but the inference about the temperature is faulty.

Methods of Measuring Validity:
1. Content Validity: (Face Validity, Curricular Validity)
2.Construct Validity: (Convergent Validity, Discriminant Validity) 3.Criterion Validity,
4.Concurrent Validity,
5.Predictive Validity

Factors Affecting Validity: Instructions to Take A Test, Difficult Language Structure, Inappropriate Level of Difficulty, Poorly Constructed Test Items, Ambiguity in Items Statements, Length of the Test, Improper Arrangement of Items, Identifiable Pattern of Answers.
Administering the Test: Test Assembly, Reproduction of the Test, Administration of the Test Test Taking Strategies, Steps to Prevent Cheating.
Measurement Scales: Nominal Scale, Ordinal Scale, Interval Scale, Ratio Scale.
Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median or Md
Measures of Variability: Range, Mean Deviation, Variance, Standard Deviation, Estimation
The different functions of grading and reporting systems are given as under: Instructional uses, Feedback to students, Administrative and guidance uses, Informing parents about their children’s performance.

Types of Test Reporting and Marking: Raw scores, Grade norms, Percentile ranking, Standard scores, Norm reference test and traditional letter-grade system, Criterion reference test and the system of pass-fail, Checklist of Objectives, Rating scales, Letters to parents/guardians, Portfolio, Report Cards, Parent-teacher conferences

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